Hypertension Description is a persistent or intermittent elevation of systolic arterial blood pressure above 140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg. Hypertension is a chronic disease, primary goals in Hypertension Nursing Care Plan is to reduce the blood pressure to less than 140/90.
Primary (essential) accounts for over 90% of cases and is often referred to as idiopathic, since the underlying cause is not known.
Secondary hypertension results from a number of conditions that impair blood pressure regulation, and accounts for only 5% to 8% of all cases of hypertension
Malignant hypertension, results from either type and can cause blood pressures as high as 240/150 mm Hg
Cause of hypertension:
Cause of primary hypertension is not known. However, associated with risk factors such as genetic predisposition, stress, obesity, and a high-sodium diet.
Secondary hypertension results from disorders that impair blood pressure regulation, particularly renal, endocrine, vascular, and neurological disorders, hypertensive disease of pregnancy (toxemia) and use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptive
Malignant hypertension is also not known, but it may be associated with dilation of cerebral arteries and generalized arteriolar fibrinoid necrosis, which increases intracerebral blood flow.
Ethnic/Racial African Americans and elderly people are most prone to hypertension and its complications.
Physical Examination Hypertension Nursing Care Plan:
- Appear symptom-free in early stages, although flushing of the face may be present
- Fundoscopic examination of the retina may reveal hemorrhage
- Measure blood pressure in both arms three times 3 to 5 minutes apart. patient is at rest in the sitting, standing, and lying positions. Hypertension should not be diagnosed on the basis of one reading unless it is greater than 210/120 mm Hg.
Diagnostic Highlights Hypertension Nursing Care Plan
- Blood urea nitrogen
- Serum creatinine
- Total cholesterol
Knowledge deficit related to chronic disease management
Interventions Hypertension Nursing Care Plan:
Health education; Teaching: Diet, Disease process, Health behaviors.