Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa; it may be acute or chronic. Acute gastritis, the most common stomach disorder, produces mucosal reddening, edema, and superficial surface erosion. Chronic gastritis is common among elderly people and people with pernicious anemia. It's often present as chronic atrophic gastritis, in which all stomach mucosal layers are inflamed, with a reduced number of chief and parietal cells. Acute or chronic gastritis can occur at any age.
- chronic ingestion of irritating foods, such as hot peppers (or an allergic reaction to them) or alcohol.
- Drugs as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, cytotoxic agents, caffeine, corticosteroids, antimetabolites, phenylbutazone, and indomethacin
- Ingested poisons, especially dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, ammonia, mercury, carbon tetrachloride, or corrosive substances.
- endotoxins released from infecting bacteria, such as staphylococci, Escherichia coli, and salmonella.
Acute gastritis may also develop in acute illnesses, especially when the patient has major trauma, burns, severe infection, or hepatic, renal, or respiratory failure. Chronic gastritis may be associated with peptic ulcer disease or gastrostomy because these conditions cause chronic reflux of pancreatic secretions, bile, and bile acids from the duodenum into the stomach. Recurring exposure to irritating substances, such as drugs, alcohol, cigarette smoke, and environmental agents, may also lead to chronic gastritis. Chronic gastritis may occur with pernicious anemia, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus.
Assessment Nursing Care Plans For Gastritis
patient with acute gastritis typically reports rapid onset of such symptoms as epigastric discomfort, indigestion, cramping, anorexia, nausea, hematemesis, and vomiting. The patient's symptoms may last a few hours to a few days.
chronic gastritis may describe similar symptoms, experience only mild epigastric discomfort, or have only vague complaints. For example, the patient may report intolerance of spicy or fatty foods or have mild epigastric pain that is relieved by eating. Patients with chronic atrophic gastritis are often asymptomatic.
On inspection, the patient may appear normal or show such signs of distress as fatigue, grimacing, and restlessness, depending on the severity of symptoms. If gastric bleeding has occurred, he may appear pale and his vital signs may reveal tachycardia and hypotension. Inspection and palpation may disclose abdominal distention, tenderness, and guarding. Auscultation may reveal increased bowel sounds.
Diagnosis Nursing Care Plans For Gastritis
- Acute pain
- Deficient knowledge (diagnosis and treatment)
- Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
- Ineffective coping
- Risk for deficient fluid volume
Key outcomes Nursing Care Plans For Gastritis
- The patient express feelings of comfort.
- The patient express an understanding of the disorder and treatment regimen.
- The patient maintain weight.
- The patient express concerns about his current condition.
- The patient maintain normal fluid volume
Interventions Nursing Care Plans For Gastritis
- Provide physical and emotional support.
- Provide e antiemetics and replace I.V. fluids as ordered. Monitor fluid intake and output and electrolyte levels.
- Monitor the patient for returning symptoms as food is reintroduced after he has received nothing by mouth. At this time, provide a bland diet that takes into account his food preferences.
- small, frequent meals to reduce the amount of irritating gastric secretions.
- Teach the patient about gastritis
- Reinforce the physician's explanation of the procedure and provide preoperative teaching.
- Provide the patient list of foods to avoid